Ever rooted in tradition — Ever open to the future — Ever loyal to our Church

Editor’s Note: This past winter, many of our readers sent in wonderful comments on the abridged version of this paper delivered to Nashotah House by R. William Franklin, Bishop of Western New York. We know you will enjoy reading further regarding the Church continuing to be sustainable in grace and by telling the story to each generation.

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Bishop Grafton and the Identity of the Episcopal Church in the Twenty-First Century

R. William Franklin, Bishop of Western New York

The paper was initially presented during the 2013 Commemoration of Blessed Charles Chapman Grafton (diofdl.org/grafton) at the Cathedral of St. Paul, Fond du Lac. After revision and addition it was presented to the Faculty and Students of Nashotah House Seminary on February 25, 2014. 

It was a great honor to be invited by Bishop Salmon and Nashotah House to deliver again a lecture I gave originally on the occasion of the annual commemoration of Blessed Charles Chapman Grafton in St. Paul’s Cathedral, Fond du Lac in August 2013. Your dean, Bishop Salmon was the preacher on this occasion. I suspect that your dean and Bishop Jacobus both invited me back because they know how much I cherish the traditions of Nashotah House, the Diocese of Fond du Lac, and the example of Bishop Grafton.

Back in the age of revolution, the spring of 1969, I came to Fond du Lac as a college student to do research on Grafton in the diocesan archives for my honors thesis at Northwestern University. My subject was Bishop Grafton and the Belgian Old Catholic communities in Door County with specific reference to Grafton’s deposition of the later wandering archbishop J. René Vilatte. I was attracted to Fond du Lac by clerical scandal, but I went back to Evanston transfixed by Grafton’s vision of mission in changing times, which has stood behind my ministry as a scholar, seminary professor, and now as bishop.

When I left Fond du Lac on an April day in 1969, I could never have imagined coming back as a bishop. On the anniversary of my consecration I asked my wife Carmela: “In your wildest dreams would you ever have believed that I would become the Bishop of Western New York?” And my wife shot back at me: “Bill, don’t kid yourself. What makes you think that you have ever been in my wildest dreams?” But my lecture today returns to that seed planted forty-four years ago, Grafton’s vision of the mission of a diocese and a diocesan bishop, particularly in times of crisis, and how that vision is applicable to the crises of the Episcopal Church today, and to my own ministry as Eleventh Bishop of Western New York.

After Northwestern, I followed Bishop Grafton to Harvard, and there my Anglo-Catholicism was nurtured, as his had been, by the Church of the Advent in Boston. Grafton was born in Boston in 1830. At the age of fourteen he was already attending the Advent in 1844, when it became the principle center of the Oxford Movement in New England. Grafton was confirmed at the Advent, and as a student at Harvard, he regularly walked the eight mile roundtrip from Cambridge to the church, fasting on the way because of his deep belief in the Real Presence of our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament. I share this belief, and I made this same round trip constantly, however in the 1970’s I took the Red Line of the Boston Subway system, back and forth, but also fasting on the way. The Tractarian who most deeply influenced Grafton as a Harvard student was E. B. Pusey, and in 1850 Grafton had already purchased Dr. Pusey’s PARADISE OF THE CHRISTIAN SOUL.

Pusey was also a focus of my Ph.D. dissertation at Harvard and of the books and articles I wrote as a seminary professor until 2002. I first came to Nashotah House in 1983 for the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the Oxford Movement to speak on Pusey. My scholarship acknowledged the fact that from September 1833 John Henry Newman fashioned the Oxford Movement’s TRACTS FOR THE TIMES into instruments for a second, and Catholic, reformation. Newman upheld the Church of England as a “divine” or “ecclesial” institution with a social mission. In the TRACTS Newman revived the notion of a communal dimension of the church as the firmest bulwark against “all-corroding, all-dissolving skepticism.”[1]

But I wanted church people of our time to remember the many actions Pusey took from September 1833 until 1882 to express this recovered communal dimension of Anglicanism through a revival of Eucharistic worship linked to a campaign for building parishes churches in the new industrial cities of England. Reviving parish worship was the way in which Dr. Pusey, Regius Professor of Hebrew at Oxford, opposed those loud voices, claiming to represent biblical faith, which were making broadside attacks on the sacraments and propagating the notion in Britain that their type of preaching should be at the heart of Christian worship. Against a one-sided Puritan spirituality which had deprecated the body and its senses and portrayed material externals as signs of hypocrisy in religion, Pusey held up the sacramental life as the noble heritage of the community of Christ. For adherents of Pusey, soon known as Puseyites, the Eucharist gave new significance to earth as well as to eternity, to matter as well as to spirit. In Puseyite parishes justice began to flow from the Eucharist: funds for workers’ compensation, funds for worthy burial, and distribution centers for clothing, food, and other necessities. From 1840 to 1889, the bond between worship and social justice was dramatized in Puseyite parishes in commercial districts. Bishop Grafton brought this Puseyite tradition to Fond du Lac and Wisconsin in 1889.

Following the Civil War, Grafton traveled to England, where he remained until 1870. He is best known for founding the Society of St. John the Evangelist, the Cowley Fathers, during these years with Richard Meux Benson and Simeon Wilberforce O’Neill, the first Anglican religious order for men since the Reformation, which was a further expression of the communal dimension of Puseyism. But he also went abroad to learn the missional model of Puseyism, particularly its social dimension, which he believed to be the new effective way of operating a parish in an industrial, democratic society. Grafton wrote: “One object I had in mind in going to England in 1865, was to study the new methods of parochial work.”[2] He studied the Puseyite parishes in the East End of London where ritualism and social justice were by practices, in Wantage, and in Leeds, leading to riots. During the great London Cholera Epidemic of 1866 he served with Dr. Pusey in the East End of London, and with Pusey took the Blessed Sacrament to the sick and dying. Also in 1866, along with Father O’Neill, Grafton organized the First Great London Mission in which 140 parishes took part, and more than 60,000 people attended services. There were two goals, which would emerge again in the Diocese of Fond du Lac:

  1. Focusing on drawing the clergy of different schools of the Church together
  2. Preaching the great fundamental truths of the Gospel in language that people could actually understand, and by this means seeking to win souls to Christ

Grafton saw clearly the revolutionary Christian Humanism of Puseyism in these words from his essay on Pusey:” The Movement, of which Dr. Pusey was the center, sought the elevation of mankind and, filled with the love of God, it glowed with an enthusiasm for humanity. It declared that all men were equal before God, and strove to make the sittings in the churches free. …The Church is all aglow with enterprises ameliorating the condition of labor, making all classes, rich and poor, feel their interdependence, and their duties to one another….Let us go out of ourselves and live for other men. O! Christian friends and brothers, as we read the lives of these great devoted Churchmen and servants of Christ, shall not our hearts be stirred afresh within us to do something more for the Master’s sake, and press on the Kingdom?”[3]

As a college senior in 1969 these words of Grafton attracted me as a revolutionary Christian response to an age of revolution. I have used this term because it was the age of the Viet Nam War. I was facing the draft and I did not know if I would be shipped far from home. It was the months just after Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy had both been assassinated. Our great cities were burning. Even Harvard blew up in the student occupation of University Hall, the police bust of Harvard Yard, and all the chaos that followed.

Much that I held to be sacred seemed to be falling apart: the university, our nation. And yet the Episcopal Church seemed a solid rock. We had 3,615,643 members. Dwight Zscheile in his book PEOPLE OF THE WAY writes of that era: “The Episcopal Church saw its role and purpose in sanctifying society from the center, with access to power and privilege. While other mainline denominations built large churches in the capital during this period, only Episcopalians would presume to call theirs THE National Cathedral….the Episcopal Church saw itself as ‘a chosen people among an elect nation.”[4]

This is no longer true. At the present time we have fewer than two million members. Bishop Ian Douglas writes: “Seemingly innumerable congregations are struggling with declining membership while precariously eating away at their endowments in order to maintain buildings and programs that serve increasingly fewer and fewer people. The loss of the national church ideal has resulted in a crisis of identity for the Episcopal Church. It is a cruel irony that the icon of the national church ideal, namely the Washington National Cathedral, has recently been shaken both figuratively and literally to its foundations….”[5]

When I was elected Bishop of Western New York in 2010 I arrived to find a diocese that had lost 40% of its members in the previous decade. The diocesan staff had been reduced to four full-time and two part-time officers. Fewer than half of our parishes are served by a full-time priest.

I have sought to translate Bishop Grafton’s vision of how a bishop and a diocese can respond to such a crisis, a vision which he brought to America from the Puseyite Movement in England, into three goals for the Diocese of Western New York in the twenty-first century:

  1. Be Sustainable
  2. Web of Grace
  3. Tell the Story

What in Grafton’s ministry as bishop speaks to the identity and work of an Episcopal Diocese in the second decade of the twenty-first century? After serving as Rector of the Church of the Advent in Boston for sixteen years, Grafton was elected Bishop of Fond du Lac in November, 1888. His consents to election were not refused like those of a previous Anglo-Catholic elected to a Midwestern Diocese, James De Koven, who had been a professor of Church History at Nashotah House. Grafton’s success in the episcopal consent process, unlike that of De Koven, was owing largely to the support of Bishop Potter of the Diocese of New York, who was a wise counselor and friend to Grafton, who described Potter as “a broad, liberal, ecclesiastical statesman…..He seemed best to understand my position of being an Evangelical at heart, while in belief a liberal Catholic.”[6] Phillips Brooks, Rector of Trinity Church in Boston, who would himself soon have a battle over consents when he would be elected Bishop of Massachusetts, Brooks also voted consent for Grafton as a member of the Standing Committee of the Diocese of Massachusetts. In April 1889, the Presiding Bishop certified the consents, and Grafton was consecrated by the biretta belt bishops in Fond du Lac on St. Mark’s Day in 1889.

Grafton felt the call to Fond du Lac was imperative, to what was practically a missionary district, not unlike Dr. Pusey’s mission field in the East End of London and industrial Leeds, but the situation was worse than that. We speak today of the “missional church” at a time of economic and demographic decline of the Episcopal Church. That is exactly what the Diocese of Fond du Lac faced in 1889. Grafton’s predecessor, Bishop John Henry Hobart Brown (who was actually younger than Grafton who was nearing 60 at his election) had broken down “…under strain of worry and work.” He “fell like a soldier shot down at his post.”[7]. Out of 33 clergy, only 18 were actively engaged in ministry. Twenty parishes or missions were without clergy. In the whole diocese only nine parishes were self-supporting, and forty odd were at mission status and needed support. In a number of small towns, missions no longer held services at all, and people did not even care that services be resumed. Fond du Lac’s Cathedral was forlorn following a terrible fire, empty and had a $15,000 debt on it. Bishop Brown had once said that he was the first Bishop of Fond du Lac, and might be the last.

There were three reasons for this disaster:

First, Grafton wrote “poverty was everywhere.”[8] The diocese was in a region of economic decline. The pine trees had mostly been cut down, and the lumber industry was moving west. Lumber interests had built up small towns, with their little Episcopal churches, but now “the timber kings” departed taking their money and leaving behind poverty.

Second, Belgian and Czech immigrant labor had been imported into many small towns to work in the woods, cutting trees, and in the timber mills. But the immigrant population could hardly cope when the lumber jobs moved. They had little or no skills. They could not become farmers. They became unemployed and declined into hard circumstances.

Many lumber barons had paid for and run small Episcopal churches. There was little or no tradition of stewardship, so when the barons left, the remaining population focused on their own business enterprises and struggling for family maintenance. Grafton wrote: “The duty and privilege of giving to God, in the way of supporting His Church, was little appreciated.”[9]

Green Bay Blessed Sacrament

Green Bay Blessed Sacrament

 

 

These three points still today almost completely describe the economic and demographic context of my diocese of Western New York, faced with the decline of the steel and car manufacturing industries and the Erie Canal over the last 60 years. Then and now—what is to be done to establish an identity for the Episcopal Church?

At first Bishop Grafton tried preaching in Eastern Seaboard churches to gain funds for his diocese. On the first occasion he collected $9 (about $225 in 2013 dollars) in the collection plates. On a second occasion one man gave him $10 as he shook his hand at the end of the service. He spoke at a missionary meeting in a large Eastern city and was told: “What does he come here for? He is not a Missionary Bishop,” and he got nothing.[10] The only way to move forward was to change, and he did so in the following ways:

First, Faith in the Presence of God in the Church: He stopped looking down at his shoes, thinking it was his burden to sustain the church, and started looking up in thanksgiving for God’s presence in the church which alone would insure its future. Grafton wrote: “I was in no way disheartened. I had a very rich Father. He owned the whole universe. I was His child, and I knew He would give me all that was needed. To share, however, in Christ’s riches, one must share in His poverty….My religious training had accustomed me to go without comfort, and instead of keeping house I took two rooms and boarded at ten dollars a week. This left me something financially to work with….All that I am and all that I have belongs to God….I must only take out of His treasury sufficient to meet the proper expenses of food, raiment, traveling expenses, and shelter. The diocese was poor, but for that reason I had been sent to it.”[11]

 

Oneida Hospital Cornerstone

Oneida Hospital Cornerstone

 

Second, he had confidence in the Episcopal Church. In the words of Bishop Andrew Doyle of Texas, he was “Unabashedly Episcopalian,” and did not hide his enthusiasm and hope for our Church. Here is Grafton: “In the Anglican Church I heard a living Voice, declaring the ancient Faith, and possessed of the priesthood, the Sacraments, and the ancient worship of the Church. Thus I was led to adopt these two principles for my religious guidance. I believed wholly in Christ and in all He said, because He said it; and in His Church, because it was the living organism through which he spoke and communicated Himself to us.”[12]

Third, moving from establishment status to being a sent people. In PEOPLE OF THE WAY Dwight Zscheile writes in 2012 of a new Episcopal identity that needs to replace the failed establishment identity of the Episcopal Church: “As with the church of the apostolic era, we can rediscover our identity as a SENT PEOPLE….We need no longer concentrate our energy on preserving and maintaining the structures inherited from a different era if they inhibit our ability to connect with people where they are in today’s world. We can be freed to reshape the life and language of the church’s worship and witness, retaining the richness and wisdom that we have inherited while translating and innovating anew.”[13]

 

Gardner Interior

Gardner Interior

 

In this passage from A JOURNEY GODWARD I believe Grafton is saying much the same thing about the need for a nimble adaptation of tradition to the times: “Was the Episcopal Church here to be merely the Church of emigrants from New York or New England? Had the Church a power to reach members of these several nationalities and supply their spiritual needs? If she was Catholic in her doctrine and worship she certainly could meet all nations. It is with intense satisfaction that I feel she has done so. The Church planted in localities where most of the people were Swedes or Bulgarians or Belgians has found a footing, and congregations have developed. Of course some adaptation or accommodations have been made.”[14] What are some examples of these “adaptations or accommodations?”

  1. Welcome flexibility with Lutherans, for which there was a “German Mission.”

Of this Grafton writes: “Thus, for instance, the Lutherans have to be carefully treated in respect to their confirmations….I have ruled that I do not require the adult Lutherans to come publicly forward for Confirmation. They have already witnessed their belief in Christ before a Christian congregation. They have received, too, a pastoral blessing, which is good as far as it goes. On being admitted to our communion I have only asked them to come at a separate service and receive the laying on of the hands of a bishop, and so gain the grace of confirmation.” [15]

  1. Liturgical parallel development with the Belgians

Grafton was aware that 70% of the population of the area of the Diocese of Fond du Lac was made up of recent immigrants to the United States or their descendants in the second generation. He was willing to develop liturgical parallel developments to reach out to these groups. Former Roman Catholics, mostly Belgians, in Door County had broken from the Roman Catholic Church and become Old Catholics. Grafton followed his predecessor and permitted the use of the Old Catholic liturgy used in Switzerland in Belgian parishes that formed a sort of Uniate Church within the Diocese of Fond du Lac. The clergy serving these parishes took a canonical oath to the Bishop of Fond du Lac, who made annual visitations to the Old Catholic Missions for Confirmation. But in doing so he made use of their liturgy.

Three examples. First, one of these Belgian churches is the Church of the Precious Blood, formed in 1885 with a building completed in 1889 in Gardner Township, Wisconsin. Dedicated to the “Precious Blood” to emphasize the fact that unlike Roman Catholic practice of the time, communion was given in both kinds. The early clergy were ordained by the Old Catholics. Precious Blood was known as an Old Catholic congregation in both name and ritual but it was, from its founding, a mission outreach of the Diocese of Fond du Lac in the Episcopal Church.

The second example came as Belgians moved into the city of Green Bay. In 1908, Bishop Grafton gave money given to him for building a new church to do so for the Belgians on the north-side, industrial district, the Church of the Blessed Sacrament. The mission used the liturgy of the Old Catholic Church but were under Episcopal authority of the Bishop of Fond du Lac. For 45 years, services were then conducted in one of the two official languages of Belgium. Today, this congregation is the only Episcopal Church that survives in the city limits of Green Bay.

The third example is work with Native Americans. Bishop Grafton supported a large congregation for Native Americans on the Oneida Reservation, having been relocated to Wisconsin from New York in the 1820’s under the authority of Bishop John Henry Hobart. This is the oldest continuing Indian Mission of the Episcopal Church with roots back to Anglican Missionaries in the early 1700’s. For the use of this Native American mission church with the aid of Cornelius Hill, he translated and abbreviated a form of the Holy Communion into the Oneida language. A branch house of the Sisters of the Holy Nativity were established on the mission grounds for the purposes of teaching. A hospital was built to care for the needs of the Oneida people.

 

Oneida Service, 1893

Oneida Service, 1893

 

A new stone church had been built in 1886 replacing the former English Gothic wooden structure where William Adams and James Lloyd Breck, founders of Nashotah Seminary were ordained. It could hold up to 800 worshippers. Grafton helped fund the addition of a Chancel in 1895. With the need of a community hall, in 1906 Grafton donated heavily for the building of a parish hall across the road, which became the de facto community center of the Oneida Tribe for many decades to come, including a day school.

Standing on the high altar is a very simple, plain hand-carved wooden cross. It is venerated because it originally was the altar cross at St. George in east of London during the “Ritualism Riots” of the late 1859-60. When an angry mob entered the church this cross was taken out and tossed in the gutter. It made its way to Holy Apostles as a reflection of the tenets of the Oxford Movement there. It was also the only flammable article rescued from a great fire that gutted the church in 1920.

All of these projects are close to the spirit of what Dwight Zscheile describes in PEOPLE OF THE WAY as the missional identity of the Episcopal Church in the twenty-first century: “This is a far more exciting, risky, adventurous, and transformative path than simply doing what we’ve always done….This means that we will likely have to let go of some treasured aspects of the church’s life in order for fresh expressions of the gospel to be born. We will have to make space for those on the edges of the church’s life to innovate the future and join them in it. We will have to adopt new and ancient habits and practices as we seek to discern what God is up to in our midst and what kind of future God is bringing forth. We will have to learn to be sowers and midwives of the church of tomorrow.”[16]

 

Waupaca, WI -- 1898

Waupaca, WI — 1898

 

For Western New York we translate this missional identity as “Be Sustainable, Web of Grace, Tell the Story.” By God’s grace will this approach work in the twenty-first century? It did work in the nineteenth century. In 1891, in just the second year of his episcopate, Bishop Grafton could report the following:

“Looking over the diocese, there is scarcely a church in which some material improvements in church property have not taken place.

Trinity Church, Oshkosh, which set the diocese so excellent an example of heroic faith in Church building, largely reduced its indebtedness…..and it has done what is worthy of all commendation, increased the rector’s salary.

St. Peter’s Church, Ripon; Trinity Church, Berlin; St. Peter’s Church, Sheboygan Falls; Grace Church, Sheboygan; St. James’ Church, Manitowoc; St. Paul’s Church, Marinette; St. John’s Church, Wausau; St. Mark’s Church, Oconto; Christ Church, Green Bay: St. Andrew’s Church, Ashland, have all been enriched by decorations, repairs or altar adornments, and some of these parishes at Easter had a surplus on hand for contemplated improvements…..

Two thousand dollars has been given for the building of a chancel and guild house at Hobart Church, Oneida, and six hundred and fifty dollars towards improvements in the rectory.

The Cathedral has been adorned by the erection of a rood screen costing fifteen hundred dollars, by the fitting up of St. Augustine’s Chapel at a like cost, the purchase of lots on the east side …which is to be used for residence of the Senior Canon….All of these have been paid for.

And another five hundred dollars for the new mission at Merrill and Tomahawk, where the work has begun so auspiciously under the care of the General Missionary.”[17]

Each year of the twenty of his episcopate there were similar reports.

How did he do it? Here is a description of the bishop at work from B. Talbot Rogers, Archdeacon and member of the Standing Committee: “So great his faith, so large his ambition for Christ and His Church, one enterprise was not enough; many at the same time and always with insistent haste. ‘The King’s business requires haste,’ was often repeated….And when others would come to the Council, depressed and discouraged, clergy leaving, work failing, no matter what the difficulties, the contrast between their discouragement and the Bishop’s hopeful cheerfulness was almost humorous. The divine character of his work is illustrated by the remarkable way in which he wrung success from failure. A hundred clergy left with oft-repeated tales of discouragement, failure, defeat. Not so the Bishop. A failure was always met with new plans, harder work.[18]

Beset by controversy and division, from first to last he never lost his confidence in the Episcopal Church. As an example of such confidence, I close with the final words preached at his funeral sermon by James O. S. Huntington, of the Order of the Holy Cross in 1912:

“…Bishop Grafton believed in the Church, in which he ministered as one of its chief pastors, as a part of the mystical body of Christ. He knew her failings and defects, and he grieved over them. But he never despaired of her, never doubted that God was with her, never forgot that to her, as to his spiritual mother, he owed his birth into the family of God, and all the richest blessings of his life….To the last, as one of another of his clergy after an interview said farewell, he would send them out with the words ringing in their ears, “Press on the Kingdom; and the kingdom was for all mankind.”

This in briefest compass, is the answer to the question, what was the meaning and significance of Bishop Grafton’s life? The other question, what does that life demand of me? must be answered by each one who holds his memory dear—answered not in words on a printed page, but in deeds yet to be done, sufferings yet to be borne, a victory yet to be achieved by the grace that never failed him, and to which he made such brave response.”[19]

And we gathered here in the twenty-first century say with James O. S. Huntington, “Thanks Be to God.”

Thanks be to God, for this model of ministry bequeathed to us by Charles Chapman Grafton:

  1. Ever rooted in tradition
  2. Ever open to the future
  3. Ever loyal to our Church

Thank you for the honor to participate in your life over these two days in February 2014. By God’s grace may we “Press on the Kingdom.”

 

Acknowledgements

  • Special thanks to Lay Canon Matthew P. Payne, Archivist and Historiographer of the Diocese of Fond du Lac who contributed to the content of this paper and provided its author a wonderful tour of the sites it mentions in the Diocese of Fond du Lac.
  • Thanks to the Rt. Rev. Edward Salmon, President and Dean of Nashotah House for the invitation to share this with the faculty and students of that institution.

 

PHOTO CAPTIONS

Gardner Interior.tif

Recently the members of Precious Blood, Gardner have restored the worship space and building to period appropriate for the late 1800’s. (Photo courtesy of Diocese of Fond du Lac Archvies)

 

GreenBayBlessedSacrament.tif

A mixture of simple and ornate adorns the altar of Blessed Sacrament, Green Bay not long after its establishment just prior to Bishop Grafton’s death in 1912. (Photo courtesy of Diocese of Fond du Lac Archives)

 

Oneida Hospital Cornerstone 1893.tif

Grafton provided support to the erection of a hospital just north of the Church of the Holy Apostles building on the Oneida Reservation. The laying of the cornerstone drew thousands with Bishop Grafton (center) as Celebrant. (Photo courtesy of Diocese of Fond du Lac Archives)

 

Oneida Service 1893.tif

The pews were full for the service prior to the laying of the hospital cornerstone in 1893. In this view of the interior of Holy Apostles, Oneida (still often called ‘Hobart Church’ in honor of John Henry Hobart) one can see the extensive amount of wood which became kindling in the fire of 1922. Not seen here is the current chancel which would be added in 1896. (Photo courtesy of Diocese of Fond du Lac Archives)

 

Waupaca 1898.tif

Bishop Grafton (back, left) visits the Rectory of St. Mark’s, Waupaca in 1898. The Rev. Hugh Burleson (back right) was the son of the Rev. Solomon Burleson who was Vicar at Holy Apostles, Oneida. Also pictured are (l-r) Helen Ely Burleson (Mrs. Hugh), Martha Burleson and Abigial Burleson.


[1] Franklin, R.W. 1983. “Pusey and Worship in Industrial Society.” 1983. Worship 57 (5): 386-411.

[2] Grafton, Charles Chapman. 1910. A Journey Godward of a servant of Jesus Christ. Milwaukee, WI: Young Churchman.

[3] Grafton, Charles Chapman. 1902. Pusey and the Church Revival. Milwaukee, WI: Young Churchman. 280-281.

[4] Zscheile, Dwight J. 2012. People of the Way: Renewing Episcopal Identity Paperback. Morehouse Publishing. New York. 24.

[5] Markham, Ian in Zscheile, ibid. xiv-xv.

[6] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 159

[7] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 160

[8] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 154

[9] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 163

[10] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 164

[11] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 153

[12] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 59

[13] Zscheile, ibid, 41

[14] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 171

[15] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 171

[16] Zscheile, ibid, 41-42

[17] Grafton, A Journey Godward, ibid., 201-202

[18] Talbot in A JOURNEY GODWARD, ibid., 202

[19] Huntington, James O.S.1913. Bishop Grafton: Commemorative volume. Fond du Lac.

 

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RWF/rct

nashotahhouse

About nashotahhouse

Located in Nashotah, Wisconsin, Nashotah House Theological Seminary is the oldest institute of higher education in the state of Wisconsin. Founded in 1842 by a Missionary Bishop of the Episcopal Church, Nashotah House belongs to the Anglican tradition of worship, theology and spirituality. That is, Nashotah House traces her roots to the Church of England and locates herself within the worldwide Anglican Communion. Comprehending the fundamental disciplines of Holy Scripture, Theology, Church History, Spirituality and Pastoral Ministry, the curriculum at Nashotah House not only roots our students in the ancient wisdom of the Church, it prepares and empowers them to communicate the Gospel to the world today.